Deux Américains reçoivent le prix Nobel d’économie 2018 pour avoir modélisé l’effet de l’activité économique sur le climat


Le 50ème prix Nobel d’économie a été attribué, le 8 octobre, aux Américains William Nordhaus et Paul Romer qui ont modélisé les effets positifs et négatifs de l’activité économique sur le climat.

« Les colauréats ont mis au point des méthodes qui répondent à des défis parmi les plus fondamentaux et pressants de notre temps : conjuguer croissance durable à long terme de l’économie mondiale et bien-être de la planète », a indiqué l’Académie royale des sciences.

William Nordhaus, 77 ans, professeur à l’université de Yale, est reconnu pour son travail sur les dommages causés par le réchauffement climatique.

Paul Romer, chercheur de 62 ans et ancien économiste en chef de la Banque mondiale, a examiné comment les économistes pouvaient atteindre un niveau sain de croissance économique.

Selon le comité du Nobel, les modèles créés par Nordhaus et Romer ont contribué au développement de la croissance économique et à la lutte contre le réchauffement climatique. Ces travaux font aujourd’hui autorité et servent à prédire ou quantifier les conséquences des politiques climatiques, par exemple la taxe carbone.

L’annonce de ce Nobel coïncide avec la publication d’un rapport alarmiste des experts climat de l’ONU (Giec) qui met en garde contre les effets dévastateurs d’un emballement au-delà de 1,5°C de réchauffement par rapport à l’ère pré-industrielle.

Le prix Nobel d’économie, ou officiellement le Prix de la Banque de Suède en mémoire de l’industriel et philanthrope suédois Alfred Nobel  (ce prix ne figurait pas dans le testament Alfred Nobel, NDLR), célèbre cette année son 50ème anniversaire. Il est la récompense la plus prestigieuse pour un économiste.


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